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The Action Thread Part Two

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JAN. 8, 2019

 

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CITIZENSHIP

7 Charts That Show the World Is Actually Becoming a Better Place

It's not all bad news.

By Julius Probst, Doctoral Researcher in Economic History, Lund University

Swedish academic Hans Rosling has identified a worrying trend: not only do many people across advanced economies have no idea that the world is becoming a much better place, but they actually even think the opposite. This is no wonder, when the news focuses on reporting catastrophes, terrorist attacks, wars and famines.

Who wants to hear about the fact that every day some 200,000 people around the world are lifted above the US$2-a-day poverty line? Or that more than 300,000 people a day get access to electricity and clean water for the first time every day? These stories of people in low-income countries simply doesn’t make for exciting news coverage. But, as Rosling pointed out in his book Factfulness, it’s important to put all the bad news in perspective.

While it is true that globalisation has put some downward pressure on middle-class wages in advanced economies in recent decades, it has also helped lift hundreds of millions of people above the global poverty line – a development that has mostly occurred in South-East Asia.

Take Action: Sign the Year of Mandela Declaration and Commit to Be the Generation to End Extreme Poverty

 

The recent rise of populism that has swept across Western countries, with Trump, Brexit, and the election of populists in Hungary and Italy, among various other factors, is thus of great concern if we care about global welfare. Globalisation is the only way forward to ensure that economic prosperity is shared among all countries and not only a select few advanced economies.

While some people glorify the past, one of the big facts of economic history is that until quite recently a significant part of the world population has lived under quite miserable conditions – and this has been true throughout most of human history. The following seven charts show how the world has become a much better place compared to just a few decades ago.

1. Life expectancy continues to rise

Even during the Industrial Revolution, average life expectancy across European countries did not exceed around 35 years. This does not imply that most people died in their late 30s or even 40s, since it was mostly very high levels of child mortality rates that pulled down the average. Women dying in childbirth was obviously a big problem too. So were some common diseases such as smallpox and the plague, for example, which now have been completely eradicated in high-income countries.

2. Child mortality continues to fall

More than a century ago, child mortality rates were still exceeding 10% – even in high-income countries such as the US and the UK. But thanks to modern medicine, and better public safety in general, this number has been reduced to almost zero in rich countries.

Plus, developing economies like India and Brazil now have much lower child mortality rates today than advanced economies had at similar income levels about one century ago.

3. Fertility rates are falling

Even though many are concerned about the global population explosion, the fact is that fertility rates have fallen significantly across the globe. UN population estimates largely expect the global population to stabilise at about 11 billion by the end of this century.

Moreover, as can be seen from the chart, many developing countries such as Brazil, China and a number of African nations have already switched to a low-fertility regime. While this transition took many advanced economies almost 100 years, starting with the Industrial Revolution, many others have since achieved this over just two to three decades.

Read More: The Most Captivating Photos From 2018's Devastating and Inspiring Moments

4. GDP growth has accelerated in developed countries

Technological leaders, the US and Western Europe, have been growing at about 2% per year, on average, for the past 150 years. This means that real income levels roughly double every 36 years.

While there were many long-lasting ups and downs, like the Great Depression or the recent Great Recession, the constancy of the long-run growth rate is actually quite miraculous. Low-income countries, including China and India, have been growing at a significantly faster pace in recent decades and are quickly catching up to the West. A 10% growth rate over a prolonged period means that income levels double roughly every seven years. It is obviously good news if prosperity is more shared across the globe.

Read More: Bill Gates Says Digital Currencies Could Empower the World's Poorest

5. Global income inequality has gone down

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While inequality within countries has gone up as a result of globalisation, global inequality has been on a steady downward trend for several decades. This is mostly a result of developing countries such as China and India where hundreds of millions of people have seen their living standards improve. In fact, for the first time ever since the Industrial Revolution, about half of the global population can be considered global middle class.

6. More people are living in democracies

Throughout most of human history people lived under oppressive non-democratic regimes. As of today, about half of the human population is living in a democracy. Out of those still living in autocracies, 90% are in China. While the country has recently moved in the other direction, there is reason to believe that continued economic development might eventually lead to democratisation (according to modernisation theory).

7. Conflicts are on the decline

file-20190102-32130-uqhlea.pngMax Roser, CC BY-SA







Throughout history, the world has been riven by conflict. In fact, at least two of the world’s largest powers have been at war with each other more than 50% of the time since about 1500.

While the early 20th century was especially brutal with two world wars in rapid succession, the postwar period has been very peaceful. For the first time ever, there has been no war or conflict in Western Europe in about three generations, and international organizations, including the EU and the UN, have led to a more stable world.

This article was originally published in The Conversation. Read the original article here.

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WATER AND SANITATION

How the Ebola outbreak spurred improved access to running water in Liberia

16 November 2018 1:35PM UTC | By: WOMEN'S ADVANCEMENT DEEPLY

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This story was originally reported by Kate Thomas for Women’s Advancement Deeply.

Until 2014, handwashing facilities were scarce across much of Liberia. The 14-year conflict that ended in 2003 wiped out the country’s water pipe infrastructure, even in the capital, Monrovia. Most of Liberia’s 4.7 million people were left without access to running water, and the taps in hospitals and health facilities ran dry.

According to a study conducted by the Liberian government and UNICEF in 2008, 8% of people had access to water pipes, but none of those were actually connected to the national water plant. Most people trekked to wells daily, washed in public bathhouses or turned to expensive imported bottled water for daily washing and consumption. Even the most high-end apartment buildings relied on rooftop water tanks, filled on a regular basis by water trucks with hoses.

WADwater2.jpgBut when the Ebola outbreak hit Liberia in 2014, Liberian health workers, community volunteers and international organisations, partnering with the Ministry of Health, campaigned to change things. Dispenser taps filled with water and chlorine began appearing all over – not just at Ebola treatment units, but outside stores, businesses and restaurants, too. After the outbreak ended in 2016, some remained in place, with soap on hand in place of chlorine.

At the same time, the Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation (LWSC) began restoring piped water to homes and businesses, pumping water across the 40-mile (65km) distance from its plant to central Monrovia. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) recently turned over three water plants to LWSC, creating access in the western town of Robertsport as well as the northern cities of Voinjama and Sanniquellie.

Resupplying the country with water has been a slow process, and one that is not yet complete. But for the first time in almost two decades, thousands of Liberians are gaining access to running water.

“It’s changed so much for me,” says Miatta Johnson, who runs a cookshop offering a daily menu of Liberian stews and soups from small premises in downtown Monrovia. “Ever since I opened the place, I had to buy water to cook with.”

Johnson says she frequently ran out of water, and there were times when she could not afford to buy sachets of water – regularly sold by street vendors – to “just waste on hands.” She says, “Since Ebola everybody’s been saying, ‘Wash your hands.’ But a lot of the big people didn’t understand that for the small people like me, washing hands could be expensive.”

In a country where finding water has been a daily challenge for a long time, many people were not in the habit of regularly washing their hands. It was not only a matter of behaviour change but also one of accessing a source of clean water. And for some health workers it meant a high-stakes choice between spending 30 minutes finding water or attending to a critically ill patient.

WADwater1.jpg“People said that washing hands was good practice, but I couldn’t make water appear like magic,” says Cecilia Tubman, a nurse who responded to the Ebola outbreak. “As a country, we never used to wash our hands. All day long we would touch things. Then we would go home and eat together. But the fingers move everywhere. People say that Ebola stripped our culture, but I think good hygiene practices have added more value to our culture.”

In the four years that have passed since the heat of the Ebola outbreak, Liberia’s National Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Commission has been more active than ever. On October 15 this year, International Handwashing Day, the commission released statistics noting that on a global level, handwashing is linked to a reduction in the risk of pneumonia of up to 50% and a 47% reduction in the risk of diarrhea – both common illnesses in Liberia.

“Good handwashing can prevent disease outbreaks, reduces absenteeism in schools and workplaces, as well as improve productivity and health outcomes,” the commission said in a statement.

Indeed, Johnson remembers the ways in which limited access to water affected not only her business but also her education. She dropped out of high school around the time that she first began menstruating, she said, simply because the school she attended did not have latrines or access to water. “It was so discouraging,” she says. “But it was better for us girls to stay home than go to school with shame face because of what the people might say about hygiene.”

She believes that as access to running water improves across Liberia, it will transform daily productivity and health – and encourage young girls to complete their education. “That will be good for them and good for the country,” she says.

Access to pipeborne water is not free, but customers like Johnson say it is worth the price of the bill, especially since the cost of buying water in sachets or bottles has escalated significantly in recent months. Johnson says she has actually made savings, and with them, she plans to expand her cookshop. First, though, she says, she will buy more soap.

ONE welcomes the contributions of guest bloggers but does not necessarily endorse the views, programs, or organisations highlighted.

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DEEP DIVES

Why data can be sexist

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Why data can be sexist
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When I worked at Microsoft, we were passionate about connecting everybody to computers and software. To do it effectively and efficiently, we scrutinized data every single day. We had access to so many numbers, and we looked at them backward and forward to make sure there was solid evidence behind every decision.

When we started our foundation, we learned right away that everyone working there was just as passionate, maybe even more passionate, about making sure every child in the world has the chance to lead a healthy, productive life. But when it came time to turn that passion into evidence-based decisions, I was surprised by how much of the data we needed was simply lacking, especially when it came to the lives of women and girls.

Bill and I just published our Annual Letter about what has surprised us the most over the years, and one of the topics I take on is these data gaps—and what the world needs to do to fill them in.

How much income did women in developing countries earn last year? How much property do they own? How many more hours do girls spend on household chores than boys?

I don’t know. Neither does anyone else. The data just doesn’t exist.

Bill and I could easily spend our whole annual letter talking about the role data plays in driving progress for the world’s poorest people. Data leads to better decisions and better policies. It helps us create goals and measure progress. It enables advocacy and accountability.

That’s why the missing data about women and girls’ lives is so harmful. It gets in the way of helping them make their lives better.

The problem isn’t only that some women are missing from the record altogether. It’s also that the data we do have—data that policymakers depend on—is bad. You might even call it sexist. We like to think of data as being objective, but the answers we get are often shaped by the questions we ask. When those questions are biased, the data is too.

That’s why the missing data about women and girls’ lives is so harmful. It gets in the way of helping them make their lives better.
 
For example, what little data we do have about women in developing countries is mostly about their reproductive health—because in places where women’s primary role in society is being a wife and mother, that’s what researchers tend to focus on. But we have no idea how much most of these women earn or what they own, because, in many countries, income and assets are counted by household. Since the husband is considered the head of the household, everything a married woman brings in is credited to him.

When such flawed data is all you have to go on, it’s easy to undervalue women’s economic activity—and difficult to measure whether women’s economic condition is improving.

Three years ago, our foundation made a big investment to start filling some of these data gaps. We are part of a network of organizations working to accelerate a gender data revolution—from empowering data collectors with new tools and training to breaking down existing datasets by gender to mine them for insights.

This work to collect and analyze data can sound—let’s face it—boring. But what’s not boring is using data to empower millions of women and girls.

When I was in Kenya a few years ago, a data collector named Christine let me accompany her as she went door to door surveying women in one of the poorest parts of Nairobi. She told me that many of the women she meets through this work have never been asked questions about their lives before. Christine says that when she knocks on a woman’s door and explains that she’s there to learn more about her, it sends a message to that woman that she matters—that someone cares about her.
What we choose to measure is a reflection of what society values.
 
I think her point is a powerful one. What we choose to measure is a reflection of what society values. That’s why when it comes to understanding the lives of women and girls, the world can’t accept “I don’t know” as an answer.

Read the rest of our Annual Letter at gatesletter.com.

Posted: March 5, 2019
Originally published: LinkedIn on February 24, 2019
Edition: Forward

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WHAT IS IT LIKE TO LIVE WITH HIV IN ZAMBIA?

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YOU ASKED. CONNIE ANSWERED.

CONNIE IS A LONGTIME (RED) AMBASSADOR WITH AN INCREDIBLE STORY.

Before treatment was available in her home country of Zambia, she lost three children to AIDS. Years later, she found out she was HIV+ and went on life-saving treatment. Today she’s an AIDS activist in her community, and thanks to (RED)-supported programs, she gave birth to her daughter Lubona who’s HIV free.

We asked our community on Instagram what questions they had for Connie about what it’s like to live with HIV.

WHAT IS IT LIKE TO LIVE WITH HIV?

You have just reminded me that I have HIV! Sometimes I forget that I am HIV positive, because I find nothing different in my life, I live my life like every other people, the only constant reminder is every evening when my alarm goes off, reminding me that I have to take my medication.  

WHEN DID YOU GET DIAGNOSED WITH HIV?

Officially, I was tested 15 years ago. But 29 years ago, I brought my daughter in to get tested, and I was tested then as well. But they didn’t tell me I was positive. Before treatment was available and before I knew my status, I lost three of my children to AIDS.

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WHAT MEDICINE DO YOU TAKE AND HOW OFTEN? IS IT FREE?

I am on a combination of three drugs and the tablets are called Atripla, which I take once a day at night. Thanks to support from organizations like (RED) and The Global Fund, the medication is free at my local clinic.

ARE THERE SIDE EFFECTS FROM MEDICATIONS?

Every person reacts differently. Some people don’t have a problem, some have mild side affects, and others may react badly — just like how people react differently to certain foods.

Connie with her daughter Lubona

Connie with her daughter Lubona

WHAT’S DOES A RELATIONSHIP LOOK LIKE BETWEEN SOMEONE WHO IS HIV+ AND HIV FREE?

Thanks to educational resources, life-saving HIV medicine and other preventative measures, couples with one partner who is HIV+ and one who is HIV free are able to lead normal, happy, healthy lives. And any HIV+ mother on medication can have a happy, healthy HIV- family. If she adheres to her medication, a woman living with HIV can give birth to an HIV free baby.

WHAT KEEPS YOU GOING? WHAT INSPIRES YOU?

After I lost my first three children to AIDS, I started taking life-saving HIV medicine. What kept me going back then was the fact that I was lucky to be alive, considering the fact that so many people needlessly died simply because there were HIV/AIDS fighting programs did not exist. But today, I’m a proud mother to my daughter Lubona who is HIV free, thanks to my medication. My daughter inspires me to keep taking my medication so that I can stay alive, healthy, and thriving — in order to take care of my baby, and watch her grow up.

WHAT’S A TYPICAL DAY FOR YOU?

There is nothing extraordinary about being HIV+. I live a normal healthy life, just like any other working woman or mother who is living without HIV.

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WHAT BRINGS YOU JOY IN LIFE?

My daughter Lubona, who was born HIV free. I also help other people in my community who are living with HIV accept their status, and start going on treatment. I am also grateful for the wonderful medicine that has keep me alive and healthy for so many years.

WHAT DO YOU DO TO FIGHT STIGMA IN ZAMBIA?

Education is vital to ending stigma and discrimination. As part of my work, I speak with HIV+ people, and sharing my own personal experiences helps educate and inform them on this virus. We must educate people living with HIV to embrace their status in many different ways — such as drama, music, educational posters, radio programs, sharing personal experiences and more.

Connie’s daughter Lubona, who was born HIV free.

Connie’s daughter Lubona, who was born HIV free.

HOW VITAL DO YOU THINK IT IS FOR ZAMBIAN RESIDENTS TO BE EDUCATED ON HIV/STI AWARENESS?

Extremely vital, considering the world is at risk of not meeting the target of ending AIDS by 2030. Education leads to less infections and protection against unnecessary disease.

DO YOU THINK TARGETING A YOUNG AUDIENCE IN ZAMBIA WITH HIV PREVENTION EFFORTS IS A GOOD STRATEGY?

Yes, it is so important since young people, especially young women, are at such higher risks for HIV infection. But we cannot leave behind other age groups, who could potentially be fueling the spread of the virus. At risk communities also include adult men, young women and girls, and especially pregnant women and their unborn babies


LEARN MORE ABOUT OUR IMPACT

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GIRLS AND WOMEN

Meet the woman smashing the patriarchy and sustaining peace in Sudan

19 September 2018 2:01PM UTC | By: GUEST BLOGGER

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Written by Alessandria Masi for Peacebuilding Deeply.

In many Sudanese communities, men dominate negotiations and peace talks. As coordinator of the Collaborative for Peace of Sudan, it is Rasha El Fangry’s job to convince local – and male – community leaders that women have a crucial role to play in building sustainable peace.


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Image via the United Nations

When Rasha El Fangry first tried to convince local community leaders in an area of South Kordofan, Sudan, to include women in peace negotiations and conflict resolution mediation, a local imam told her, “In the Quran, [it says] women should stay at their homes.”

As a Sudanese Muslim involved in peacebuilding efforts herself, El Fangry disagreed.

“Who interpreted the Quran for you?” she said she asked the imam in return. “There is nothing like that in the Quran.”

El Fangry is the coordinator of the Collaborative for Peace of Sudan, a local organization that creates “peace committees,” in partnership with Peace Direct. These small groups of community members are tasked with pinpointing the drivers of conflict, carrying out mediation between tribes and communities and, sustaining local peace agreements. Part of her work, she said, is to convince local community leaders to include women in these committees.

“It takes a long time,” she said. “But with commitment and the belief in what we are doing, it works.”

Peacebuilding Deeply spoke with El Fangry about the importance of local ownership in peacebuilding efforts and how to convince a community where men dominate leadership roles that women must have a seat at the negotiation table.

Peacebuilding Deeply: Why does the Collaborative for Peace of Sudan focus only on local solutions and what have you learned from that?

Rasha El Fangry: In Sudan we have like a hundred peace agreements but there is no actual peace. We look for communities where conflict is taking place and we look for a real member of the community to be like a guard for the peace that they build or sustain.

We work in South Kordofan, where there are several ethnicities and there is conflict between the Arab ethnicity and the Nuba ethnicity. There are violations around land ownership, between herders and farmers, between Muslims and Christians or non-believers. So there is this type of diversity, the area is on the border with South Sudan, so there is immigration and from time to time there is conflict from that.

We try to involve members of the community as much as possible to pinpoint exactly what the problem is and, if we attain peace how do we sustain it? Through the communities, we identify conflict, the historic background to the conflict, how to address the conflict, why it isn’t working, how to do something differently. This is all by learning from the community.

First we found that there is no gender balance. There are no women involved in the peace agreements in Sudan, especially in South Kordofan. All the peace talks are being done by the male members or religious leaders or administration leaders, who are never female.

Peacebuilding Deeply: Why is that?

El Fangry: It is cultural. The role of women is to bring kids, then rear them, and look after the houses.

We find these women. We try, first of all, to convince the communities to accept the women to be part of the peace committees. This is the first step. Then for the women to be part of the negotiations around peacebuilding and conflict resolutions between the communities.

Peacebuilding Deeply: How do you go about convincing the community?

El Fangry: It takes a long time. Since 2009 … we have been trying. I myself also face problems because I am a female who is going there to meet the religious leaders and to meet others. I faced a lot of discrimination at the beginning. But with commitment and the belief in what we are doing, it works.

Peacebuilding Deeply: So if I were going to one of these communities to try to convince them, how would I do it? What would you tell me to do?

El Fangry: First of all, you have to believe in what you are doing. And you have to be strong because they will definitely tell you all the discriminations in the world. For example, in one of these areas, an imam told me: “In the Quran, [it says] women should stay at their homes.”

And I told him, “Who interpreted the Quran for you? There is nothing like that in the Quran.”

The thing is, when you work with the communities, you find that there are several people at the top, who are controlling everything and saying everything on behalf of the communities. But when you go deeper you will find there is understanding and that they will understand you.

The ladies in these communities have lots of things they want to say. They have lots of issues and concerns they want to share but they haven’t found any opportunities for that.

Using the mechanism, we find that a lot of communities themselves are fed up from politicians, politics, extremism, radicalization of communities, differences between ethnicities. There is always one somebody on behalf of the community talking, and sometimes he is a politicized person or he doesn’t know what he’s doing. He thinks he is protecting his community but actually he is destroying it.

For example, we worked with one woman named Meriam. She was attending the civil communication workshop and, when she was to become a part of the peace committee, she was afraid that the community would not accept this idea. Then one day, in an area of South Kordofan where there is mujahideen [a group engaged in jihad], they called her to come with them to the mediation.

The peace committee member called her and said “you can join us to go to the mediation.”

She was surprised when they asked her to tell her point of view from a woman’s perspective.

Peacebuilding Deeply: How did you convince them to invite her?

El Fangry: To convince them to allow Miriam in the peace committee it took one year. And then when she was to go with them to [the mediation] of fighters between the two tribes, it was about six months [later].

And then she was given an opportunity to talk. That was wonderful. She immediately called us and said “I am in the front of the group of males!” She was so excited, super excited.

The thing is she was thinking of all females in the area, she was thinking “I hope I am not letting them down and telling the real stories of the impact of conflict in our area. How do we suffer, what do we suffer, about our kids and our families…

You feel that the women are so committed to the work they are doing or the things they have to do. Even if it’s just looking after their kids at home.

Peacebuilding Deeply: What did she say when she spoke to the group?

El Fangry: First of all, she told us was completely frightened and shaking about speaking in front of the men. Then when she started talking about the impact that she sees on her neighbors, with mothers and with her own kids and the amount people that they lost, [the men] were all keeping silent. At the beginning they were all making fun of her because she was a female talking and things like that.

But when they were listening, she said she was so inspired and so full of energy to talk about these issues. She told us, “When I finished they clapped their hands to me.” They said to her that she spoke about issues that they never speak about. When there are negotiations in the community they talk about the privilege of the tribe, what the other tribe would say if we don’t take revenge or don’t go to that specific conflict… things like that.

For example, there is one tribe in South Kordofan where there are no people between the ages of 20 to 25. All of them have died. Can you imagine? These are the things she spoke about. She talked about the numbers of unaccompanied kids in the area, the numbers of handicapped people either due to mines or just someone threw a bomb on their home. These people were helping the community but now they are just sitting home, feeling guilty. She spoke to them about things like that.

Peacebuilding Deeply: Did they invite her back after that first time?

El Fangry: Actually now she’s doing conferences to help women to do the same.

The answers have been edited for length and clarity.

*all images via United Nations

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HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria don’t just cause illness and deaths around the world, they decrease productivity and increase the risk of poverty in the communities and countries affected. Loss of income and the cost of healthcare have dramatic effects on the individual, as well as their family and community.

Here’s what you need to know about these three diseases:

HIV/AIDS

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attacks and destroys the body’s immune cells making it difficult for the body to fight off infections and other diseases. If left untreated, HIV can develop into acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV infection. Rather than a single illness, it presents as a cluster of symptoms when a person’s CD4 cell count drops too low, dramatically shortening their life expectancy. The term HIV/AIDS is used to describe the virus and the resulting symptoms and illnesses.

HIV spreads from person to person through contact with certain bodily fluids, usually through sex or needle use. Although there is no cure for HIV, it can be controlled with antiretroviral therapy (ART). If taken correctly every day, ART can significantly increase that person’s lifespan and decrease the chance of infecting others.

Condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and voluntary male medical circumcision are highly effective methods that can be used to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV. Interventions, like scaling up sexual reproductive health education and needle exchange programs, can lead to behavioural change that can also reduce the spread of HIV.

Preventing the spread of HIV is crucial: 1.8 million people were infected with HIV last year alone. And due to a lack of treatment 940,000 people died from AIDS-related causes.

MALARIA

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Malaria is a tropical disease caused by parasites and transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. While global malaria death rates have dropped 60% since 2000, malaria is back on the rise: there were 3.5 million more cases in 2017 than the year before. Children under the age of 5 account for two-thirds of all malaria deaths.

Control measures such as insecticide sprays, insecticide-treated bed nets and antimalarial drugs have successfully reduced malaria cases and deaths. But insecticide and drug resistance is a growing threat as these interventions continue to be scaled up.

TUBERCULOSIS

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TB is the number one infectious disease killer in the world. TB — which killed 1.6 million people in 2017, including 300,000 people with HIV — is spread from one person to another through the air. When someone with TB coughs or sneezes, for example, the bacteria can be spread to another person and infect their lungs.

Over 10 million people are infected with TB every year, but the disease can be difficult to detect, which results in a large number of people — around 36% of those with active TB — undiagnosed, untreated, and therefore, contagious.

On top of all this, antibiotic resistance is making a deadly enemy, even more dangerous. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) remains a public health crisis and a health security threat. Last year, there were 558,000 new cases with resistance to the most effective first-line drug. As a result, only 55% of MDR-TB patients are successfully treated.

But here’s the good news: most cases of TB are curable if patients follow and complete a 6-9 month drug regimen. It is crucial this regimen is followed precisely and is fully completed to avoid drug resistance and reinfection.

THE GLOBAL FUND

The Global Fund is an innovative partnership between governments, businesses, and health organisations, designed to accelerate the end of the three diseases. They make targeted investments around the world related to promoting treatment and prevention of AIDS, TB and malaria. With the support and investment of the Global Fund, the number of people dying from these diseases has been slashed by one-third since its creation in 2002.

In October, the Global Fund will host their sixth replenishment. They’re asking world leaders and private investors to come together and help save 16 million lives between 2021 and 2023 by meeting their replenishment goal of US$14 billion.

This investment is the bold ambition the world needs to get us on track to stop the spread of these diseases — and it’s why we’re calling on world leaders to #StepUpTheFight by fully financing the Global Fund.

Add your name now to tell world leaders they must back this bold initiative this year.

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HIV/AIDS

These Zambian acrobats are flipping HIV taboos on their head

28 September 2018 3:47PM UTC | By: THOMSON REUTERS FOUNDATION

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This post was originally written by Emma Batha. Editing by Claire Cozens for Thomson Reuters Foundation

The Zambian slum of Chibolya is notorious for crime and drugs, but acrobat Gift Chansa wants to get the township’s youth hooked on a very different high – circus.

Chansa is co-founder of Circus Zambia, the country’s first social circus, which provides disadvantaged young people with education and job opportunities while teaching them everything from unicycling and fire-eating to tumbling and juggling.

The circus also runs a “Clowns for Condoms” project to help tackle the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, where myths persist that the disease is linked to witchcraft.

Set up in 2015, Circus Zambia has already gained international attention, performing in Britain, the United States, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands and across Africa.

Chansa grew up in Chibolya, a poor Lusaka township which one Zambian journalist recently likened to Sodom and Gomorrah.

It is an image the charismatic acrobat is keen to dispel. He says young people are discriminated against and refused jobs simply for mentioning they come from Chibolya.

“When you grow up there, no one takes you seriously,” Chansa told the Thomson Reuters Foundation during a tour of Britain this month.

“So we wanted to say, ‘Look, not everybody is a criminal. There are young people coming up that are knowledgeable … young people that are ready to take over the world’. And that’s why we created the platform Circus Zambia.”

 

Source: BBC What’s New? Circus Zambia UK Tour, August 2018

 

While in London, Chansa met Queen Elizabeth to receive the Queen’s Young Leader Award which recognises “exceptional people” from across the Commonwealth who are transforming lives in their communities and beyond.

Drink & drugs

The eldest of six children, Chansa never knew his father. He was raised by his mother and grandparents, who provided him with his distinctive name, calling him a “a gift to the family”.

There were no parks, libraries or youth centres in the township so Chansa and his friends, including Circus Zambia co-founder Benard Kaumba, amused themselves with acrobatic contests in the street.

In 2014, Chansa and Kaumba were invited to train at a circus school in northern China under a scheme sponsored by Beijing after their talents were spotted by a Chinese circus troupe visiting Lusaka.

Chansa, 27, and Kaumba, 28, say if they had not discovered circus they could have easily been dragged into a world of drink and drugs.

“Things were hard for me. Circus kept me busy and helped me stay away from bad influences,” said Kaumba, dressed in his brightly coloured African-print tumbling costume.

“When you go back and see your friends, you see their life is just drugs,” he added, reeling off a list of illicit substances available on the streets of Chibolya.

Today the circus boasts 15 performers and works with 80 children. It has new premises which include a library, class room and training room and is raising money to finish building a theatre.

Zambian-acrobats_body.jpg

Source: Circus Zambia

Circus Zambia is part of a growing global movement of social circuses including Circus Kathmandu in Nepal, created by survivors of trafficking, and Circolombia in Colombia, which works with children from areas where gangs and drugs are rife.

Through circus skills, marginalised young people learn self-esteem, discipline, trust and team-work as well as physical fitness and creative expression.

Social circuses also use entertainment as a tool to engage communities on social or health issues such as alcohol abuse or HIV/AIDS.

Juju myths

Two years ago, Chansa watched a young friend die of HIV/AIDS after he refused medicine, believing he had been cursed. Chansa is now determined to help tackle widespread ignorance around an epidemic that has left one in six people in Lusaka HIV positive.

“In Zambia it’s hard to talk about sex, nobody talks about sex,” said Chansa, who believes the HIV rate is even higher in Chibolya.

“A lot of people will say (HIV/AIDS) is witchcraft, it’s juju, and then they won’t take their medicine – and then they die. We want to say it’s not juju.”

Last year Circus Zambia launched Clowns for Condoms, an initiative that uses circus to bust taboos around HIV, increase awareness and distribute condoms.

Chansa says their colourful wigs and costumes help overcome barriers.

“It’s easy to attract people when you go into the community and people see you dressed as clowns,” he said. “You can (talk to) them just there and then, so that’s why we use circus.”

Chansa wants to expand Circus Zambia to other regions and ensure it has a secure future for the next generation of performers.

He is also dreaming big for his own future.

“I want to be a politician,” Chansa said. “That’s my ambition – because people don’t understand what young people are going through, especially in communities like mine.”

ONE welcomes the contributions of guest bloggers but does not necessarily endorse the views, programs, or organisations highlighted.

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HEALTH

This New Map Shows You How Many Years of Life Pollution Has Taken Away From You Based Off Where You Live

You might want to take a look.

4.5 billion — that’s how many people around the world today are exposed to levels of air pollution that are at least twice what the World Health Organization (WHO) considers safe. And until now, the impact of prolonged exposure to pollution on a single person’s life expectancy has remained largely unanswered.

Now, this information has become publicly available. And it might shock you.

 

 

 

In a new report published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal, researchers from around the world have created a map based on findings that show, depending on where you live, just how many years of life air pollution is stealing from you.

Read More: This Is Not a Joke: Companies Are Charging $100 for a Pint of Clean Air

“It suggests that particulates are the greatest current environmental risk to human health, with the impact on life expectancy in many parts of the world similar to the effects of every man, woman and child smoking cigarettes for several decades,” Michael Greenstone, an author of the paper and director of the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago, explained in a statement.

Greenstone and his colleagues measured populations exposed to PM2.5, a hazardous particulate matter and global indicator for air pollution, and compared the data to mortality rates over the last couple of years.

As it turns out, in some countries pollution can shave quite a lot time off a person’s life. Here’s what the study found:


China — 3.5 Years Lost

 

Some of you might be thinking: “no surprise there.” There have been numerous examples of heightened air pollution in China, including the horrible 33-car pileup in 2015 caused by thick pollution.

But what startled researchers is that compared to the country’s southern region, the concentration of pollution in northern areas, which includes the capital of Beijing, is around 50% higher. The findings concluded that life expectancy is about 5.5 years lower in those northern cities.

The disparity comes down to the well-intentioned, but ultimately, it appears, deadly, Huai River Policy, instated between 1950 and 1980, under which the government provided free coal during the winter season for indoor heating in households north of the Huai River.

Since then, the policy has caused 500 million residents of Northern China to lose more than 2.5 billion life years of life expectancy, according to a 2013 study.

China has been making moves toward cleaner air, investing heavily in renewable energy, switching out fossil fuels, subsidizing electric vehicles, and punishing firms that violate air pollution laws.

India — 4.01 Years Lost

 

Read More: Delhi Is a 'Gas Chamber,' Says Officials of Toxic Smog Levels

This may seem bad, but for someone living in the capital, New Delhi, things are even worse. In New Delhi, air pollution can cut a person’s life by nearly a decade, the study found.

While the dangerous particle, PM2.5, has stabilized in China over the past few years, in India, levels have sharply increased.

Between 1990 and 2015, India’s rapidly worsening air pollution has caused about 1.1 million people to die prematurely, officially surpassing China’s pollution as the world’s deadliest.

As India tries to industrialize, “the idea that policy making should be led by government is lacking,” Bhargav Krishna, manager for environmental health at the Public Health Foundation of India, a health policy research center in New Delhi, said in an interview.

As a matter of fact, the country of 1.3 billion people has yet to undertake sustained public policy initiatives to reduce pollution, according to Gopal Sankaranarayanan, an advocate of the Supreme Court of India. Weak environmental regulations in India, he explained, leave citizens with few alternatives other than to petition the courts to take action to protect public health.

Chile — 1.37 Years Lost

 

Renown for its clouds of smog, Chile is one of the world’s most polluted countries, according to the country’s Environmental Ministry. Booming factories and growing city centers paired with the country’s geographic location are at fault here.

Santiago, for instance, is nestled in between two mountain ranges which creates a stale air pocket in the valley with minimal ventilation. In 1996, the city’s air quality was so bad that influenza spread rampantly, sending about 3,500 children to the hospital daily.

Conditions have continued to worsen and in 2015, the Environmental Ministry declared an environmental emergency, partially shutting down the city. More than 1,300 factories and 80% of the Santiago’s 1.7 million cars ceased operation, sending over 6 million underground to commute using the subway system.

Since then, transportation has been reduced by 40% in order to slash toxic emissions and improve the life expectancy of Chile’s population, which has lost nearly two years overall.

Democratic Republic of the Congo — 1.84 Years Lost

 

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), particularly rich in natural resources, has had a long history of extensive mining. That exploitation, coupled with traffic congestion, poor road maintenance, and inadequate infrastructure, is the reason millions across the country have lost nearly two years in their life expectancy rate.  

Research released in 2016 by Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations revealed that serious environmental pollution, as well as human rights violation, were still occurring in 2016 as a result of cobalt mining, making water, “unfit for human consumption and agriculture.”

The country has the greatest extent of tropical forests in all of Africa and in 2005, the government received a $90 million grant from the World Bank to help it police and protect its forests. The DRC, however, still has a long way to go to develop sustainable environment plans.


The United States and other developed countries aren’t in the clear, either.

For cities like New York and Los Angeles, air pollution is also a problem. According to the Air Quality-Life Index, high levels of the pollutant, PM2.5, have shortened lifespans in New York by one month. In Los Angeles, that figure is eight.

Researchers argue that in the case of Los Angeles, people would live much longer if the city complied with the Clean Air Act.

“The Clean Air Act has made a vast difference in the quality of the air we breathe,” Greenstone said in a statement, “and in the length of our lives.”

Read More: Almost 1 in 7 Children Is Breathing Toxic Air Right Now

Similarly, in some European countries, strict environmental regulations have yet to be enforced.

Poland, which recently broke records in its southern city of Skala for surpassing Beijing’s level of pollution, has become the smog capital of Europe. In Italy, pollution-related deaths are on the rise, and reached a toll of 84,000 in 2012.

Both countries’ pollution levels, the report found, have reduced lifespans by about a year.

 

“The histories of the United States, part of Europe, Japan and a handful of other countries teach us that air pollution can be reduced,” Greenstone added. “But it requires robust policy and enforcement.”

Global Citizen campaigns on protecting the environment and creating a sustainable earth free from life-threatening pollution. You can take action here.

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ENVIRONMENT

5 Household Products That Are Slowly Destroying the Environment

And 5 things you should be using instead.

Having a clean house is great — but a clean environment is even better.

Many of the household and kitchen items we use on a daily basis may seem innocuous but have a detrimental effect on the environment. Ingredients found in soaps and detergents can wreak havoc on marine life and water systems. And despite our best recycling efforts, single-use plastic products like shrink wrap and coffee pods are still damaging to the environment.

While it would be impossible to completely eliminate all these items from most households, Global Citizen has rounded up alternatives to these products that can help make your home, and the environment, a little greener.


1/Laundry and Dish Detergents

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, many detergents contain phosphorus and nitrogen. These ingredients make their way into water sources where they cause aquatic plants to proliferate and then die. As the plants decay, they sap oxygen from the water, suffocating marine life, Belgium’s Federal Public Service for Health, Food Chain Safety, and Environment reported. Detergents also frequently contain surfactants, which help to separate water and oil. But surfactants also attack the mucus coating of fish, leaving them vulnerable to parasites and other contaminants around them, according to the EPA.

Swap for:Laundry and dish detergents that have higher concentrations of plant-based ingredients and are biodegradable.

 

2/Single-Use Coffee Pod Machines

Who doesn’t love a cup of coffee in the morning? Especially if it’s easy and convenient to make.

In recent years, coffee pod machines have become extremely popular. In 2016, the machines — most of which use single-serve coffee pods — were predicted to overtake both instant and ground coffee.

And while companies like Keurig and Nespresso have introduced recyclable pods, not everyone is in the habit of recycling, and research has found that it can be a difficult behavior to adopt, according to the Huffington Post.

The plastic and aluminum pods that don’t get recycled ultimately end up in the trash and contribute to landfills.

Swap for: French presses or aeropresses, but opt for stainless steel filters over paper ones.

Take Action: Pledge to take three for the sea.

 

Actúa: Tweet Now

 
 
 
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Tea pot.jpgImage: Flickr - Phillip Jeffrey

3/Tea Bags

If you were hoping to avoid the environmental pitfalls of coffee by switching to tea, you may be disappointed to learn that our tea consumption can also negatively impact the environment.

Pyramid-shaped tea bags have risen in popularity over the past few years, and while these bags are often described as “silky,” they’re plastic, so they cannot be composted and are not biodegradable.

While traditional paper tea bags are better for the environment, many are not fully biodegradable. A report released in 2010 found that tea bags produced by several major UK brands were 80% biodegradable at most, according to the Guardian.

Swap for: Metal tea balls and infusers, which can be washed and reused, or loose leaf tea in a pot.

 

4/Disposable Wipes

Disposable wet wipes — whether we’re talking about baby wipes or disinfecting wipes — pose a major problem for sewer systems and the environment. In the UK, the number of wet wipes found along the coastline has increased by more than 400% over the past 10 years, the Guardian reported.

And though many disposable wipes are marketed as “flushable,” they often contain plastic and are not biodegradable. Once in they’re in the sewer system, wet wipes bunch together and trap food and other waste to form giant blockages and “fatbergs” — clumps made of fat from food waste and wipes — according to the Atlantic.

Read more: Disgusting Wads of Wet Wipes Are Clogging Sewers Across the UK

Swap for: Stick with toilet paper or try washcloths. According to the Environmental Working Group, disinfecting wipes are not necessary for most messes, often a non-anti-microbial cleaning agent and a cloth will do the trick. As for baby wipes and other wet wipes, safe cleaning products are just as effective when used with reusable washcloths.

5/Plastic Cling Wrap and Aluminum Foil

Though plastic wrap and aluminum foil can help us reduce our environmental impact by keeping food fresh longer and cutting down on food waste, both have major negative consequences on environment.

Neither is regularly recycled and both require fossil fuels to produce, the Slate reported, which generates greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change.

Swap for: Glass or plastic reusable containers, or an environmentally-friendly alternative to cling wrap like Bee’s Wrap — a reusable wax-coated cloth that can be used just like plastic film.

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CIUDADANÍA

Estos 7 latinos cambiaron el mundo

Un impacto positivo que dejó una huella.

hispanic-americans.jpg__1264x568_q85_crop_subsampling-2.jpg

 

 

Los latinos y la comunidad hispana en Estados Unidos representan el grupo de más rápido crecimiento en la cultura americana. Millones de estadounidenses tienen también raíces hispanas y muchos han tenido un impacto innegable en esta cultura y en el mundo.

En áreas que van desde la educación hasta la igualdad de derechos, estos 7 latinos representan el verdadero espíritu de un Global Citizen:

 

1 / Albert Baez
Albert Baez emigró de México a los Estados Unidos con su familia cuando aún era un niño. Mientras estaba en la escuela de posgrado en la Universidad de Stanford, Albert Báez fue uno de los co-inventores del microscopio de rayos X, una nueva tecnología en 1948 que permitió a los científicos y médicos ver las células vivas.

Este invento fue un paso crítico hacia la medicina moderna y aún es ampliamente utilizada. También fue útil en la invención del telescopio.

Como pacifista, Báez decidió no seguir a muchos de sus colegas de física que trabajaron para la industria de las armas durante la Guerra Fría. En cambio, continuó investigando, se convirtió en profesor y enseñó en varias universidades, entre ellas el MIT y la Universidad de Bagdad.

También es el padre de los cantantes y activistas de renombre, Joan Baez y Mimi Farina.

 

 

2 / Demi Lovato
Demi Lovato ha trabajado siempre para educar a las niñas y luchar por la igualdad de género. Esta estrella del pop mundial habla abiertamente sobre la importancia de ser feminista, aceptar el cuerpo tal cual es y trabajar sobre la autoestima.

Es también embajadora oficial de Free the Children, una organización internacional y nacional que permite a los jóvenes romper las barreras que les impiden convertirse en activistas.

Lovato se siente orgullosa de sus raíces hispanas y siempre ha hablado abiertamente sobre temas relacionados con la etnicidad y la inmigración en los Estados Unidos. Recientemente, trabajó con distintas organizaciones para ayudar a las personas afectadas por la decisión del presidente Trump de terminar el programa DACA.

 

 

3 / Roberto Clemente
Roberto Clemente nació en Puerto Rico y creció como hijo de un granjero de azúcar. Se convirtió en una de las estrellas más importantes del béisbol y apareció en 15 Juegos de Estrellas convirtiéndose en el primer jugador latinoamericano en alcanzar 3,000 hits en su carrera.

Pero el trabajo humanitario de Clemente fuera del campo brilló tanto como su habilidad atlética. Durante las temporadas bajas, donó a organizaciones benéficas para llevar ayuda a Puerto Rico y otros países latinoamericanos.

"Si tienes la oportunidad de ayudar a otros y no lo haces, estás perdiendo el tiempo en esta Tierra", dijo.

Clemente murió en un trágico accidente aéreo mientras se dirigía a entregar suministros a las víctimas del terremoto en Nicaragua. Los Piratas de Pittsburgh comenzaron un "Día de las donaciones" anual en su honor.

 

 

4 / Nydia Velázquez
Nydia Velázquez encontró su vocación como activista a temprana edad. Cuando era adolescente en Puerto Rico, solicitó a su escuela y ciudad mejorar la salud y el saneamiento en su escuela secundaria local. Finalmente se mudó a Nueva York para estudiar ciencias políticas en la NYU.

En 1992, se convirtió en la primera mujer puertorriqueña en ser elegida para servir en el Congreso, y luego en la primera mujer latina en presidir un comité del Congreso cuando se convirtió en Presidenta del Comité de Pequeños Negocios de la Cámara. Hoy en día, continúa su lucha para obtener mejores servicios de salud y atención médica para todos los estadounidenses.

 

 

5 / Jorge Ramos
Conocido como "El Walter Cronkite de América Latina", Jorge Ramos es un periodista que se ha convertido en una de las personas más influyentes de América.

Antes de comenzar su carrera como periodista en Estados Unidos, Ramos publicó historias críticas del gobierno mexicano, algunas de las cuales fueron censuradas. A la edad de 24 años, emigró a los Estados Unidos y continuó su trabajo, convirtiéndose en ciudadano estadounidense en 2008.

A través de sus informes, ha sido un incansable defensor de los derechos de los hispanos y está liderando el camino para promover la alfabetización entre los hispanoamericanos. Creó el primer club de libros en la historia de la televisión hispana, Despierta Leyendo (Wake Up Reading), en 2002 y es autor de varios libros, entre ellos, “Un país para todos: un manifiesto de inmigrantes”.

 

 

6 / Eva Longoria
Una de las actrices de televisión mejor pagadas por su papel en la dramática "Desperate Housewives", Eva Longoria dedicó su tiempo y dinero a trabajar para mejorar el planeta y las personas.

Longoria trabaja en nombre de varias organizaciones benéficas, es la portavoz nacional de Padres Contra El Cáncer (una organización sin fines de lucro que ayuda a los niños latinos con cáncer y sus familias) y fundó su propia organización (Eva’s Heroes) que ofrece oportunidades para jóvenes con problemas de desarrollo.

También está muy involucrada con la temática de inmigración y ayudó a producir documentales agrícolas basados en los trabajadores, "The Harvest" y "Food Chains".

 

 

7 / Sophie Cruz
"Tengo derecho a la protección. Tengo derecho a vivir con mis padres. Tengo derecho a vivir sin miedo. Tengo derecho a ser feliz", dijo Sophie ante una multitud de 5,000 personas frente al Tribunal Supremo en 2016.

Sophie Cruz está liderando un movimiento nacional para la reforma migratoria. Sophie cobró notoriedad cuando logró entregarle una carta manuscrita al Papa Francisco durante su visita a los Estados Unidos. En la carta, expresó sus temores de ser deportada. Desde entonces, ha luchado por los derechos de la comunidad de inmigrantes en Estados Unidos, pronunció un discurso en la Marcha de las Mujeres en enero después de la elección del presidente Trump y expresó su apoyo a DACA.

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HEALTH

'The Science Is Clear': Declining Environment Will Kill Millions Each Year, UN Says

Water contamination alone will cause millions of premature deaths.

Why Global Citizens Should Care
As the environment deteriorates from climate change, pollution, and other factors, human health will inevitably be affected. The United Nations’ latest report on the environment urges countries to protect the planet for the sake of public health. You can join us in taking action on this issue here.

From stronger heat waves to new vectors for disease transmission to worsening freshwater pollution, the health threats associated with environmental degradation are vast, according to the United Nations’ sixth Global Environment Outlook.

The report, released on March 4, says that millions of people are expected to die prematurely as the environment declines, and the world’s poorest populations will be the most negatively affected.

“The science is clear. The health and prosperity of humanity are directly tied to the state of our environment,” Joyce Msuya, acting executive director of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), said in the report’s press release. “We are at a crossroads. Do we continue on our current path, which will lead to a bleak future for humankind, or pivot to sustainable development?”

Take Action: Educating Girls Strengthens the Global Fight Against Climate Change

Actúa: Tuitea Ahora

 
 
 
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The global environment is deteriorating in a number of ways. The UN notes that resource extraction has more than tripled over the past 50 years, which has driven more than 90% of the planet’s biodiversity loss. Various forms of pollution — from industrial plants dumping toxins into local environments to countries releasing plastic into bodies of water — are corroding the health of ecosystems, which leads to various health complications in humans.

And climate change is causing environmental shifts that can undermine public health.

The health risks associated with the worsening environment can be broken down into three categories, according to Jeffrey Shaman, director of the climate health program at Columbia University: direct consequences, indirect consequences, and complex health risks.

 

Read More: Your Doctor Might Start Warning You About Climate Change — Here’s Why

Direct consequences include rising deaths from heat waves, intensifying storms, and air and water pollutants.

“These are real easy and clear connections,” Shaman, who was not involved with the UN report, told Global Citizen. “You have a change in temperatures, a heatwave, and you see a big spike in deaths.”

The World Health Organization estimates that 38,000 additional people will die prematurely each year through 2050 because of heat stress. The number of people who will be exposed to deadly heat waves will nearly double by 2050, according to a University of Hawaii study.

Air pollution, meanwhile, is increasingly making it hard for people to breathe. A new study estimates that 8.8 million people die prematurely from contaminants in the air each year.

The UN report notes that the pollution of freshwater sources could lead to millions of more deaths each year. In Tennessee, a coal plant has been leaking highly toxic coal ash into groundwater drinking supplies, putting the health of millions of people at risk.

Read More: Climate Change Is Already Damaging the Health of Hundreds of Millions of People, Report Shows

The indirect consequences, according to Shaman, include the health problems associated with forced migration from sea level rise and storms, and the spread of diseases in changing climates.

By 2100, more than 2 billion people could be displaced from their homes due to environmental changes.

Complex health risks are “things that have to do with conflict, food and water insecurity, and the inability to maintain the sort of sustainable resources that we have relied on for the past 10,000 years,” Shaman said.

“There has to be some continuity and constancy in the environment for us to feed ourselves, and in many places around the world things are changing at a really rapid rate, leading to agricultural failures, nutritional problems, and additional stresses,” he added.

Shaman said that the civil war in Syria, for example, has been partly linked to a terrible drought that began around a decade ago, and the drought consuming the Lake Chad region has destroyed local fishing and agricultural industries, driving widespread migration.

Read More: Climate Change Could Unleash ‘Zombie Pathogens,’ Reviving Centuries-Old Diseases

Whether its air pollution harming people with breathing problems, new pathogens infecting young children, prolonged heat waves hurting elderly people, or contaminated water supplies provoking regional fights for water, the UN says that the health of humans is inextricably linked to the health of the planet, and countries ignore environmental hazards at their own peril.

As is often the case, the world’s poorest populations are at the greatest risk of the cascading effects of ecological decline.

“Those who are living in resource-poor areas are going to be disproportionately affected by this,” Shaman said. “They will not have the resources to deal with the problems associated with climate change, they won’t have the capital to build safeguards for agriculture or desalination plants, and they won’t have the means to take care of their populations.”

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18 DE MARZO DE 2019

 

3
 
MEDIO AMBIENTE

Esto es lo que nos dice la ballena encontrada con 40 kg de plástico en el estómago

Solo China e Indonesia arrojan más plástico en los océanos que Filipinas.

 

 

Por qué es importante para los Global Citizens
La contaminación plástica amenaza a los animales en todos los ecosistemas marinos y el plástico podría superar a los peces en los océanos para 2050. Los gobiernos de todo el mundo están comenzando a frenar la producción de plástico conforme con los Objetivos Mundiales de las Naciones Unidas. Puedes unirte a nosotros para tomar medidas sobre este tema aquí.

 

Una ballena de pico curvo o ballenato de cuvier fue encontrada muerta el sábado con 40 kg de plástico en su estómago, en las orillas de la ciudad de Davao, Filipinas.

 

Su hallazgo pone el foco en el problema global con los residuos de plástico, ya que ella sola había ingerido alrededor de 40 kg de plástico, y parte de él había comenzado a calcificarse en su cuerpo, según indicó  Darrell Blatchley, el presidente de D'Bone Collector Museum, una organización sin fines de lucro que recupera animales muertos y los conserva con fines educativos.

 

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“Mostraba signos de estar demacrado y deshidratada”, le dijo Blatchley a Global Citizen. “Había estado vomitando sangre antes de morir”.

 

"Al llegar al estómago, supe que esta ballena había muerto debido a la ingesta de plástico", agregó. “Los cetáceos no beben agua del océano; sino que obtienen el agua fresca a través de la comida. Así es que en el caso de esta ballena, se trató de una muerte por deshidratación e inanición".

Screen Shot 2019-03-18 at 1.11.00 PM.pngD'Bone Collector Museum

 

A medida que los animales ingieren plástico, es más probable que mueran. Cuando el plástico llena el estómago de una ballena, esto puede engañar al animal haciéndole creer que está lleno, evitando que ingiera alimentos nutritivos y reales. El plástico también se convierte en un imán para las toxinas en el medio ambiente, y puede transportar metales pesados y otras sustancias venenosas para los animales.

 

"Las ballenas de pico curvo son una especie que se alimenta principalmente en el océano profundo y oscuro", dijo John Hourston, fundador de Blue Planet Society, a Global Citizen. “Las ballenas picudas usan la succión para llevarse presas a la boca. Parece que están confundiendo plástico con comida. Además, son particularmente susceptibles de ingerir plástico probablemente porque se parece a sus principales especies de presa, como el calamar".

"Esta ballena tenía la mayor cantidad de plástico que jamás hemos visto en una ballena", dice la publicación de D’Bone Museum en Facebook. "Es asqueroso. El gobierno debe tomar medidas contra quienes continúan tratando los cursos de agua y el océano como basureros".

 

En los últimos años, la contaminación plástica se ha convertido en una crisis ambiental. Más de 8 millones de toneladas de plástico ingresan a los océanos del mundo cada año, y se estima que 5 mil millones de microplásticos flotan en ambientes marinos. Todos estos residuos amenazan a las criaturas marinas como diversas tortugas, pequeños anfípodos, focas, delfines y ballenas.

 

El año pasado, otra ballena fue encontrada en España con 29 kilos de plástico en su estómago.

 

Ahora, esta ballena encontrada en la ciudad de Davao, ubicada en el sur de Filipinas, habla especialmente del grave problema de plástico al que se enfrenta ese país, quien es uno de los que libera más plástico a los océanos.

 

De acuerdo con el Morning Post de China Meridional, en todo el país, los cuerpos de agua están repletos de plástico debido a los vertidos ilegales y al desbordamiento de los vertederos.

 

Menos de una cuarta parte de las 40.000 aldeas del país cuentan con instalaciones para la recuperación de residuos plásticos.

 

Las leyes contra la basura plástica no se aplican de manera adecuada para hacer frente a la magnitud de la contaminación y el país simplemente no tiene la capacidad de reciclar todo el plástico que se está consumiendo, informa el SCMP. Más concretamente, la producción y el consumo de plástico en el país han alcanzado niveles insostenibles, ya que los consumidores se han acostumbrado a los envases de plástico desechables que cubren casi todos los productos.

Greenpeace-Coke-Marine-Pollution.jpgImage: Daniel Müller/Greenpeace

 

A medida que el costo ambiental de los residuos plásticos se hace más evidente, el movimiento de personas que busca el uso cero de residuos está creciendo en el país. El movimiento de desperdicio cero tiene como objetivo crear sistemas donde todos los desechos en un área sean reciclados o reutilizados, nada vaya a los vertederos o contaminen los ecosistemas, y se alienta a las personas a comprar contenedores reutilizables.

 

En Filipinas, la limpieza de residuos plásticos se ha convertido en el primer paso hacia una mayor sostenibilidad.

 

Actualmente se está llevando a cabo una limpieza de plástico a gran escala en la Bahía de Manila, y los esfuerzos por rehabilitar las áreas costeras han sido encabezados por grupos ambientales.

View image on TwitterView image on TwitterView image on Twitter
 

On March 18, 2019 at about 10:00 AM, personnel of this station led by PO3 Edwin G Penetrante together with PO1 Richard Reyes under the supervision of PCI REY D CACACHO, Station Chief conducted Coastal Clean-Up Activity in relation to the “Restoration of MANILA BAY”.

 
 
 
 

Las organizaciones que trabajan en áreas de sostenibilidad también están presionando a las comunidades locales para que adopten alternativas al plástico.

 

"Los fabricantes deben proponer con urgencia alternativas ecológicas a los plásticos", dijo Hourston de Blue Planet Society. "Si no lo hacen ellos, los gobiernos deben hacerlo. Nos estamos quedando sin tiempo."

 

La ciudad de San Fernando solía estar cubierta de plástico, pero en 2012 implementó un sólido programa de recuperación de plástico que le permitió desviar el 70% de los desechos de los vertederos. Ahora es un lugar relativamente impoluto.

 

Global Citizen se encuentra realizando una campaña en la que le pide a los alcaldes de Filipinas que sigan el ejemplo de San Fernando y se unan al movimiento de residuos cero. Puedes unirte y tomar medidas sobre este tema aquí.

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WATER & SANITATION

Michael Sheen Is Destroying Period Stigma With #Pads4Dads

“Let’s not leave dads out of the bloody conversation.”


Why Global Citizens Should Care
People affected by period poverty all around the world lack access to sanitary products, menstrual hygiene education, toilets, hand washing facilities, and, or, waste management. To end world poverty, we must ensure all people have access to water and sanitation to stay in school. You can help us take action on this issue here

Actor and advocate Michael Sheen wants to talk about reproductive organs, and this time it isn’t on his show Masters of Sex.

The star is supporting #Pads4Dads, a new initiative to end period poverty in the UK and push for better period education in schools. Launched on March 11 by Hey Girls, a Scottish menstrual equity organization, the campaign is promoting a toolkit to make fathers feel more comfortable discussing the menstruation process with their children.

Take Action: Prioritizing Menstrual Hygiene Management is Key to Ensuring Girls Can Stay in School

Actúa: Take Action

 
 
 
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“Let’s not leave dads out of the bloody conversation,” says Sheen — who has a 19-year-old daughter with actress Kate Beckinsale — in a #Pad4Dads promotional video. 

 

Today I'm debunking the common myth that Dads can't (or won't) get involved in talking periods with our daughters. Thanks to @HeyGirlsUK for bringing Dads to the table with all we need to know #Pads4Dads http://bit.ly/Pads4Dads 

 
 
 
 

Hey Girls had real fathers weigh in to create the #Pad4Dads kit, which includes a 20-page manual, A Dad’s Guide to Periods, that teaches men about menstruation. Fathers also have the option to order a toolkit for £12.95 that comes with sanitary products, and hot chocolate to make bringing up the topic easier. 

“We wanted to create something empowering to give dads a helping hand,” Celia Hodson, the founder of Hey Girls, said of the idea behind the toolkit. 

 

It's nuts that half the population have periods but yet they're still seen as secret and shameful… Well not on our watch thanks to our new #Pads4Dads guide!

Have you downloaded yours yet? https://buff.ly/2tXY0hh 

 
 
 
 

 

Read More: Michael Sheen Helps Launch a New Youth Homelessness Hotline in Wales

Due to stigma and taboos around menstruation, fathers don’t always have the language to talk about menstruation openly with their children. In a small survey Hey Girls conducted with 1,500 men, 40% said they had never been taught about periods in school and 45% of fathers are unsure what the signs are that their child might be about to start their period. 

This lack of information trickles down ––  a 2017 survey in the UK found that 26% of girls did not know what to do when they started their period.  

“Including men and boys into these conversations will help dispel their misconceptions as they become supportive brothers, husbands, and fathers,” Craig Geddes, senior technical adviser, education and child protection, at Plan International USA told Global Citizen of Hey Girls' effort.

Girls across the globe regularly miss days of school on a monthly basis and are subject to ridicule and abuse because of their periods, Geddes explained. The cultural shame attached to menstruation and a shortage of resources stop people who menstruate from reaching their full potential.

Thorsten Kiefer, the founder of the global sanitation advocacy organization WASH United, wants to shift the conversation about menstrual hygiene management. 

“When it comes to menstruation, people tend to reduce the issue to products,” he told Global Citizen. “But everything starts with education, so that girls have at least a basic understanding of what menstruation is and are enabled to make informed choices on how they want to manage theirs. Menstrual hygiene education in schools is a global challenge that requires a lot more attention and funding.”

In addition to helping lower income people who menstruate in the UK have better access to menstrual products, Hey Girls advocates for more education about periods in schools for boys and girls. 

“Engaging men in the conversation around menstruation is critical to truly ensuring there is holistic support and space for a young girl to truly embrace her educational and empowerment journey,” Geddes said. 

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MARCH 20, 2019

 

 
 
CITIZENSHIP

4 Ways You Can Help the Victims of Cyclone Idai

The relief effort will take months and even years.

Why Global Citizens Should Care
Cyclone Idai has affected millions of people in Southern Africa and the relief effort will go on for months and years. The United Nations’ Global Goals call on countries to work together to prevent and mitigate the damage from natural disasters. You can join us in taking action on this issue here.

Cyclone Idai bombarded the coast of Southern Africa on Mar. 14 with powerful winds and rains, destroying whole cities and unleashing the worst floods seen in the region in over 20 years.

Hundreds of people have died from the storm, and more than 1.5 million people are estimated to have been affected in Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe. Heavy rains, collapsing dams, and overflowing rivers have created an “inland ocean” in central Mozambique, where thousands of people remain stranded.

Rescue workers are working furiously to save people, but this is only the first stage of the humanitarian effort.

Take Action: Take the Resilient Response Pledge and Commit to Change the Way You Give after a Natural Disaster

Actúa: Take the Pledge

 
 
 
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En asociación con: All Hands and Hearts yGood360

Aid organizations will be on the ground for the next several months and even years working to address the damage and help people recover. Governments around the world are beginning to chip in, including the United Kingdom, which has committed 12 million Euros to the relief effort. 

Cyclone-Idai-Africa-Zimbabwe.jpgSoldiers carry supplies to areas affected by Cyclone Idai in Chimanimani, about 600 kilometers southeast of Harare, Zimbabwe, March 18, 2019.
Image: Tsvangirayi Mukwazhi/AP

Here are four things you can do to help the victims of Cyclone Idai.


1. Donate to organizations on the ground.

 

In the days leading up to the cyclone, relief organizations sent workers to Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe to be prepared for the impending storm and the potential consequences.

But to send more people to the area, perform rescue missions, provide supplies to millions of people, and get situated for the long-haul, these groups need funding. 

The best thing you can do is donate money.

"In emergencies like this, cash donations are best because they allow us to get the exact items that families need, into their hands, as quickly as possible," Erin Taylor, director of communications for humanitarian response at Save the Children, told Global Citizen. "The world is just now becoming fully aware of the scale of the disaster. We urgently need people’s help as we expect the emergency response will go on for months and the recovery will take years."

Read More: How to Give Purposefully to Victims of Natural Disasters

Here are donation pages for relief organizations working on the ground.

United Nations

Save the Children

CARE

Oxfam

International Red Cross

Catholic Relief Services

After natural disasters, affected areas are often overwhelmed with supplies like clothes, food, and toys by concerned people, but relief workers say that these donations, while well-intended, are not helpful.

"It's just not practical — people need assistance today," said Greg Ramm, vice president of humanitarian response at Save the Children. "If food was delivered to Save the Children, or goats, or tents, or whatever you think might help, the practical matter, the getting there, is logistically difficult.

"We have prepositioned supplies much closer in ports and airports," he added. "It would be so much more helpful to provide financial assistance to the people in Mozambique so can get what they need today."


2. Learn more about the disaster. 

 

In the aftermath of any natural disaster, calls for assistance go out around the world, but the conditions surrounding all of these events are unique.

In the case of Cyclone Idai, poverty, weak infrastructure, climate change, and many more factors, played a role in the storm’s destructive force.

Read More: There's a Disaster in Southern Africa You Probably Haven't Heard About

In the days and weeks ahead, become better informed about the cyclone by following the news coverage and reading articles and watching videos on Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe.

 

 

No mattter how good early warning systems are, death, displacement and destruction caused by #CycloneIdai underlines importance of investing in resilient infrastructures says @HeadUNISDR #ResilienceForAll #SendaiFramework http://bit.ly/2ua1P30 

 
 
 
 

3. Check back in.

 

Although the cyclone hit last week, coverage of the event only ramped up in recent days, and there’s concern that international interest in the crisis will wane in the days and weeks ahead.

“We cannot forget about this,” said Ramm. “Berai was a city of 500,000 that has been essentially destroyed, and there are hundreds of thousands of more people affected in surrounding communities. The world needs to show we care about you, you have not been forget, help is on the way.”

Read More: This Project Is Improving Access to Essential Medical Supplies Across Africa

The relief effort will be ongoing for months, and it’s important to regularly check back in to see if aid organizations need further assistance. In fact, if you have the means, it might be best to set up a recurring donation to on-the-ground groups to ensure they’re well-funded in the months ahead to handle any challenges that may arise.

After people are rescued, groups will be providing food, water, shelter, health care, and much more to millions of people. Because of the extensive flooding, the risk of waterborne diseases has increased, and health workers will be working to prevent the spread of cholera. Children are also especially vulnerable in the aftermath of a natural disaster, and groups like UNICEF and Save the Children will be working to ensure they have places to learn and grow.


4. Donate to groups fighting poverty.

 

Cyclone Idai exposed a lot of long-standing structural problems in Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe.

Ramm from Save the Children emphasized the steep challenges facing Mozambique in particular.

“Mozambique is a relatively poor country,” said Ramm. “Many of the roads into remote communities are dirt roads, which wash out in the rain, much of the construction of homes are mud bricks, which will not withstand rain and wind, and communication was fragile to begin with.

“When you take a country that’s just beginning to develop, and you knock it back on its feet like this, it’s so hard to recover,” he added.

In addition to the humanitarian groups listed above, many other organizations are helping to improve living conditions on a long-term basis in the countries affected by Cyclone Idai.

In the months ahead, find ways to support the work of these organizations as well.

A few examples include Nweti, which is working to end gender-based violence in Mozambique; Caritas, an organization helping to reduce poverty in Zimbabwe; and the Hunger Project, which is improving nutrition levels across Malawi.

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18 DE MARZO DE 2019

 

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CIUDADANÍA

Esta es ahora la ruta más mortal del mundo para los migrantes

Se han reportado cerca de 80 muertes a lo largo de esta ruta desde el 1 de febrero.

 

 

GINEBRA - Es un título que nadie quiere. Y ahora la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones informa que América Latina ha desplazado al anterior titular, el Mar Mediterráneo, como la ruta más mortal para los migrantes en el mundo.

 

Miles de refugiados y migrantes han muerto mientras realizaban el peligroso viaje a través del mar Mediterráneo hacia Europa.

 

Pero ahora América Latina ha roto ese récord anual y se ha convertido en la ruta más mortal para los migrantes.

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En asociación con: CHIME FOR CHANGE

El portavoz de la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones, Joel Millman, dijo que desde el 1 de febrero, se han reportado 79 muertes a lo largo de esta ruta. Explica que esto es casi tres veces más alto que las cifras reportadas en el Mediterráneo.

 

Millman está de acuerdo en que el aumento de las muertes es una consecuencia del aumento de la migración de los países latinoamericanos a los Estados Unidos. Recientemente le dijo a VOA que el viaje se ha vuelto más peligroso debido a la mayor dependencia de los refugiados y migrantes de los traficantes que los transportan a la frontera con Estados Unidos.

 

“La migración circular, en la que hubo repetidos clientes cada año en América Latina, de personas que iban a trabajar, en gran medida, ha terminado. Y eso significa que la relación que los migrantes tienen con las personas que los transportan tiende a ser mucho más dura y que están tratando con una clase de traficantes más criminal de lo que existía hace una generación. Claramente, eso se nota en el número de personas asesinadas", dijo.

 

Millman dice que los contrabandistas a menudo se arriesgan y recortan gastos para aumentar las ganancias. Explica que muchos, por ejemplo, conducen vehículos inseguros, y esto a menudo resulta en accidentes mortales.

 

Hace solo 10 días, hubo un accidente con un camión en el estado de Chiapas, en el sur de México, donde murieron 24 hombres y mujeres guatemaltecos. Según Millman este año ha sido particularmente mortal para los guatemaltecos. Dice que este choque fue uno de los peores reportados por la OIM en los últimos cinco años.

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JAN. 26, 2018

 

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FOOD & HUNGER

Why You Should Probably Never Eat Seafood Again

“My blanket recommendation is do not eat seafood.”

Recently, a sushi-loving man who was feeling ill pulled a five-foot long parasite from his bowels and his gruesome endeavor quickly became a viral referendum on sushi and other uncooked foods.

At minimum, the horror story was a stark reminder of how sushi can harbor pathogens and creatures you don’t want to consume.

For some people, it triggered a wholesale reckoning with sushi.

Take Action: Take the Sustainable Seafood Pledge

 

 

 

But the risk of getting food poisoning or parasites is just the beginning of the problems associated with seafood.

Seafood is often described as a middle ground between eating meat and not eating meat — a way to get protein while adhering to ethical and environmental demands.

But there are many ethical, environmental, and even health consequences that stem from buying fish from sushi counters and supermarkets across the world.

For marine advocate John Hourston of the Blue Planet Society, the mounting evidence of harm is enough reason to stop eating fish.

Read More: The ‘Pepsi Lobster’ Isn’t Alone. These 5 Other Animals Were Harmed by Plastic

“My blanket recommendation is, do not eat seafood,” he recently told Global Citizen.

That might be too extreme for most people, but here are four more reasons why you should reconsider your seafood habits.

Fish Are Being Wiped Out

Tuna fish.jpgFlickr / US Fish and Wildlife Service

The global appetite for seafood is greatly outpacing the ability of fish to reproduce.

In fact, more than 30% of the world’s fisheries are being pushed to the point of collapse, according to the World Wildlife Fund.

Popular species like tuna are being dangerously overfished and many stocks are at risk of disappearing altogether if sustainable management practices aren’t adopted.

A major driver of overfishing is the lack of national and international oversight of the world’s waters. A report by the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization found that 35 million metric tons of fish go unreported each year by fishing vessels.

That’s a problem because it prevents sustainable fish quotas from being maintained and derails conservation efforts.

And this lack of regulation is leading to abuses in other ways.

The Seafood Industry Kills Animals That People Don’t Eat

Seal bycatchImage: Marine Photobank

Commercial fishing vessels often rely on massive nets that trawl ocean floors to maximize daily catches.

Whenever these nets are used, many animals that were not meant to be caught end up trapped — a phenomenon known as “bycatch.”

The UN estimates that between 20-25% of all sea creatures that are caught are victims of bycatch and many of these creatures die.

Up to 300,000 small whales, dolphins, and porpoises get entangled and killed in this manner each year. The single biggest threat to sea turtles, according to the World Wildlife Fund, is bycatch.

Read More: Fishing Companies Are Trying to Hide How Penguins Are Showing Up Dead in Their Nets

Sometimes, these animals die because they get trapped in fishing materials that are discarded in the water by boats. This can lead to animals swimming around with constricting and painful gear wrapped around or stuck on their bodies, greatly impairing their quality of life.

11180010313_cf51137605_o.jpg

“Most people who eat crab and lobster probably have no idea that several whales may have had to die to put that shellfish on the plate,” Hourston of the Blue Planet Society said.

This pollution is emblematic of an even bigger problem in marine environments.

Oceans Are Treated as Garbage Dumps

Great Pacific Garbage Patch.jpgImage: Ray Boland, NOAA

Every minute, the equivalent of a garbage truck worth of plastic makes it into the world’s oceans.

Plastic microbeads, for example, have become a scourge to marine life. A single shower using soap with microbeads can release 10,000 of them into the environment, most of which end up in sources of water

If consumed by animals, microbeads can lead to a range of problems by causing pain, clogging digestive tracts, and blocking the absorption of nutrients. Microbeads are also magnets for toxic chemicals as they float through the water, so when they’re consumed they also leach toxins into animals.

And the amount of toxins present in the world’s oceans is staggering.

Runoff from sewage systems, farms, factories, nuclear testing sites, landfills, construction sites, and many more sources, inundate marine environments every day. More than 80% of the waste that enters the oceans comes from land sources, according to UNESCO.

Ganges River in India, raw sewageImage: AP

But cruise ships alone dump more than 1 billion gallons of sewage directly into oceans each year and boats in general dump an estimated 70 to 210 million gallons of waste oil annually.

Read More: Rising Ocean Temperatures Are Killing the Seafood Millions Need to Survive

One industrial toxin that commonly pollutes oceans is mercury, which is either directly deposited through industrial runoff or rains down into waters after being released as an emission.

All of these sources of waste lead to toxicity in oceans and directly affects marine life. Globally, there are around 500 marine dead zones because pollution is so extreme.

For all the areas that aren’t dead zones, pollution still seeps into sea creatures and works its way through the marine food chain. And this pollution, ultimately, makes it to supermarkets and restaurants where it’s sold to humans.

Global CItizen campaigns on ending pollution in marine environments and you can take action on this issue here.

While parasites are definitely a cause for concern, toxic substances from human pollution are a more persistent threat.

Encuesta | Alimentos y Hambre
2111 Respondido

Would you stop eating seafood?

I'd cut down on seafoodNoYes
 

The Seafood Industry Fuels Inequality

 

When responsibly managed and protected from pollution, the seafood industry is a vital part of the global economy.

Even today, the seafood industry employs 57 million people and generates $150 billion in income.

But as demand for seafood has increased, the industry has become highly unequal, with large vessels crowding out smaller fishermen and leading to many of the abuses described above.

Oftentimes, this inequality plays out in international contests, with wealthier countries plundering the waters of those with less sophisticated technology.

Read More: Environmental Hero Leonardo DiCaprio Wants to Change the Way You Eat Seafood

For instance, illegal Chinese fishing crews are pushing West African fisheries to the point of collapse, while taking away roughly $2 billion in local revenue each year and displacing scores of people who catch and sell fish, according to an analysis by the journal Frontiers in Marine Science.

Then there’s the prevalence of slave labor and other exploitative practices being used on fishing vessels. In 2015, the AP broke a story about how shrimp being caught on Thai fishing boats were often being handled by slaves. The reporters then showed how most of this shrimp ends up in popular supermarkets.

 

The way the story caught people off guard showed how little awareness surrounds the fishing industry. But the resulting outrage showed how much people want ethical and sustainable seafood.

Since most of the fish sold throughout the world isn’t precisely labeled with where it was caught, consumers often have little idea what they’re buying and under what conditions it was procured, according to Hourston.

“Most people have to buy seafood in their supermarket, not from a dock,” he said. “That’s not practical for 99.99% of people.”

“Until [the fishing industry] can come up with a system that tells the consumer what happens in the process, then it’s a blanket ban on all industrially caught seafood.”

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HOOSIERS! On Saturday, April 6th the ONE at Indiana University chapter and community team will be hosting our Advocacy in Action: ONE’s 2019 agenda to end extreme poverty training!

At this exclusive training, led by Regional ONE staffer Shawn Phetteplace, our IU ONE Chapter and community leader, you will learn about our plan to help end extreme poverty, end AIDS and make sure that the most at-risk people get the help they need. We'll give you a background briefing on ONE, these issues and you'll be able to even take action right then and there! Want to step your activism and make a difference? Sign up below-->

https://act.one.org/event/generalevent_attend/12151?fbclid=IwAR28q1QIWLY7qJsO3QjgdxY5rqJYSWfRpmakyuZCFpjUk6bB8UngjnawTDU

 

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