Since I'm an inhabitant of Amsterdam and we are all ride our bicycles I don't have any knowledge about Uber, what I do know is that you guys have to be extra careful taking a taxi. A lot of taxi drivers are ok and are member of decent companies, but there's a lot that work on their own and try to rip their customers off. Never ever take a taxi on the airport that is offered to you by someone in the terminal, just take the official queue at the stand.
The all-in-one transport card is really useful, maybe better than the I Amsterdam card, but that all depends on the number of museums and other attractions you're planning to visit. Like I said you can even buy a ticket including train to/from the airport, but you can buy a single ticket on the train station.
If you love to walk and explore try to stay out of the city Centre and visit neighbourhoods like 'Oud-West' (where the 'Hallen' are), from there you can easily walk into the Vondelpark and discover Oud-Zuid (South).
Finally: when planning to see a museum, especially the Anne Frank House, be aware of huge queues that can be avoided by pre booking. Just visit the website and check it out.
Enjoy Amsterdam, I know I do ?